The Fundamental Architecture of Motion Control Systems

The Fundamental Architecture of Motion Control Systems

Manufacturing Technology Insights | Tuesday, October 26, 2021

A subfield of automation, motion control is concerned with moving objects. Hydraulic pumps, linear actuators, and motors are examples of servomechanisms, and they are used to control the machine’s position or speed.

FREMONT, CA: Motion control is primarily separated into two categories: motion control, which is typically applied in the mechanical field, and process control, which is typically applied in the chemical business. And motion control refers to a type of servo system that evolved in the early days, based on motor control, to control the change of an object’s angular displacement, torque, speed, and other physical quantities.

The fundamental structure of motion control system

A whole motion control system contains a motion controller, which generates track points (the desired output) and closes the position feedback loop. Numerous controllers are also capable of closing a speed loop internally.

Motion controllers are broadly classified into three types: PC-based, specialized controllers, and PLC-based. Among them, PC-based motion controllers are widely used in electronics, EMS, and other industries; dedicated controllers are widely used in wind power, photovoltaics, robotics, and molding machinery, among other industries; and PLCs are widely used in rubber, automotive, and metal metallurgy, among other industries.

The drive or amplifier is used to transform the motion controller’s control signal to a more significant current or voltage signal. The more advanced intelligent drive can close the position and speed loops independently to achieve more accurate control.

Actuators such as hydraulic pumps, cylinders, linear actuators, or motors are used to generate motion. A feedback sensor, such as a photoelectric encoder, resolver, or Hall effect device, is utilized for communicating the actuator's position to the position controller, closing the position control loop.

Numerous mechanical components, including gearboxes, shafts, ball screws, toothed belts, couplings, and linear and rotary bearings, are utilized to transform the actuator's motion form to the necessary motion form.

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