What You Should Know About Non-Destructive Testing Methods

What You Should Know About Non-Destructive Testing Methods

Manufacturing Technology Insights | Friday, December 31, 2021

Equipment maintenance is inextricably linked to testing. It must be conducted to assess mechanical components' materials, components, design, and structure.

FREMONT, CA: Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods do not impair the structural integrity of the tested components. NDT evaluates components separately or collectively using a variety of inspection techniques. It tests the components using a variety of scientific principles (physics, chemistry, and mathematics).

There are numerous non-destructive testing options. The following sections address the most frequently used non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques with a broader application. Specific NDT techniques are only applicable in a few specialized areas.

Visual inspection

Visual inspection is by far the most straightforward type of non-destructive testing. It is frequently categorized as routine maintenance work. It is used every day by maintenance workers to check for common symptoms of wear and tear. Depending on the application, it may or may not be undertaken while the machine operates.

When direct access to the test object is not possible, visual inspections can be performed remotely using robots and drones equipped with cameras.

Visual testing is most sophisticated when paired with machine learning techniques. This method is only cost-effective for product quality testing when a significant volume of standardized components is inspected.

Ultrasonic testing

Ultrasonic testing is based on high-frequency sound wave propagation and reflection principle. It can be utilized for various purposes, including fault detection/evaluation, dimensioning, and material characterization. Ultrasonic receivers and transmitters are used for testing.

Through the substance being tested, ultrasonic soundwaves are transmitted. The sound travels through the component and is reflected off the stiff surface at the transmitter's opposite end. It is used to determine the time required to transmit and receive sound waves. The variation in time at various component areas can identify material flaws.

Numerous ultrasonic testing modalities can be utilized to detect various flaws, cavities, and material deterioration. Ultrasonic testing is performed on mechanical components subjected to high loads regularly. Ultrasonic testing is frequently used to detect faults and deformation in railway carriage wheels and axles.

Vibration analysis

Vibration analysis is a widely used technique for monitoring the health of spinning components while they are in operation. Vibration analysis is based on the idea that various materials have distinct vibration signatures.

Apart from a vibration meter, various sensors can detect vibrations. They are designed to detect displacement, velocity, acceleration, misalignments, looseness, and other common problems associated with rotating equipment.

As with the other techniques discussed here, vibration analysis generates valuable condition monitoring and predictive maintenance data.

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